Authorizing Legislation: Section 301 and title IV of the Public Health Service Act, as amended.
Program funds are allocated as follows: Competitive Grants/Cooperative Agreements; Contracts; Direct Federal/Intramural and Other.
From leading the call for an AIDS-free generation to developing vaccines and therapeutics for diseases that affect populations worldwide, the United States is a global leader in health research and scientific advances that improve the lives of Americans and people across the globe. These discoveries are often made by U.S. and foreign scientists working in close collaborations that enable the best and brightest minds to tackle complex health challenges together. The Fogarty International Center therefore supports innovative training and research programs for U.S. and low- and middle-income country (LMIC) scientists that strengthen the research capabilities and catalyze the international scientific partnerships that lead to research discovery and improved health. By investing in current and future leaders in global health research and strengthening the long-term capacity of research institutions to provide robust and sustainable platforms for cutting-edge science, Fogarty advances the goals and extends the leadership of the NIH and the U.S. government in science and research, while playing a vital role in building the capacity needed to successfully tackle critical health challenges.
Fogarty programs have supported long-term research training for over 4,500 scientists worldwide, in collaboration with over 230 U.S. and LMIC research institutions. These investments provide unique training opportunities for early-career global health researchers, and aid in the retention of this diverse scientific talent in the research enterprise.
Fogarty programs support researchers who are generating critical scientific evidence and applying this research to specific interventions, policies, and programs. Infectious disease outbreaks from human and animal hosts pose significant potential health and economic threats to the U.S. and other countries.
Fogarty supports catalytic basic biomedical and behavioral research that can lead to tomorrow's breakthroughs.
The need for sustainability poses a significant challenge for investments in global health research and research training. Fogarty investments continue to evolve with increasing research capabilities in LMICs in order to build on successes and support the training of individual scientists and strengthen research institutions. In addition, Fogarty will increase support for institutional networks and hubs for data collection and sharing. When such sharing platforms are built around a core of trained individuals and strengthened institutions, they can effectively harness the different strengths of these institutions, and promote enhanced efficiencies and more robust, collaborative science.
In an increasingly interconnected world, the U.S. is often called upon to play a leading role in addressing the world's most pressing challenges. Fogarty programs harness the capabilities of the U.S. as a leader of biomedical research, extend the frontiers of science, accelerate discovery, improve the health of Americans and people across the globe, and help the U.S. continue to compete and lead in science.
The FY 2014 request for FIC is $72.864 million, an increase of $3.371 million, or 4.8 percent over the FY 2012 Actual level. FIC distributes its resources among many programs and mechanisms and is committed to funding the largest number of meritorious projects possible, while allowing the flexibility needed to support selected program priorities and to respond to emerging scientific opportunities. Funding decisions are based on the number of high-quality applications, the overall number of applications, and the availability of funds. FIC funds a large number of initiatives with collaborating funding partners that include other NIH Institutes/Centers, other government agencies, and non-government organizations. Funding decisions take into account program relevance and overall portfolio consideration.
Funds are included in R&D contracts to support trans-NIH initiatives, such as the Basic Behavioral and Social Sciences Opportunity Network (OppNet).
Research Capacity Strengthening
Identification of priority health challenges and development of effective health interventions to address those challenges require a critical mass of U.S. and low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) institutions that can conduct robust research and train the next generation of scientists to solve complex problems. Strong institutions that can conduct health research and train scientists in a wide range of disciplines are critical to finding solutions to global public health challenges, and to building the research workforce of the future. These institutions can stimulate innovative and multidisciplinary research on locally relevant problems, generate effective and implementable solutions, and build a nimble and networked research workforce. Fogarty investments are strengthening U.S. and LMIC research institutions by supporting the development of new research and research training models that will foster collaborative and sustainable research environments.
The FY 2014 President's Budget estimate is $37.401 million, an increase of $1.135 million, or 3.1 percent above the FY 2012 Actual level. FIC's Strategic Plan provides the pathway toward developing sustainable global health research and training programs where they are needed most. The plan's first goal is to mobilize the scientific community to address the growing epidemic of chronic, non-communicable diseases related to increased longevity and changing lifestyles in the developing world. To accomplish this, FIC continues to invest in this area, while also investing in the critical infectious diseases agenda. With the merging of several FIC AIDS programs into one called the HIV AIDS Research Training Program, FIC plans to increase funding by $1.0 million, supporting grants that focus on building or strengthening HIV-related capacity in a particular scientific or critical research infrastructure area at LMIC institutions.
Program Portrait: Global Environmental and Occupational Health (GEOHealth) Hub Program
FY 2012 Level: $0.528 million
FY 2014 Level: $0.628 million
Change: +$0.100 million
An untold number of illnesses and deaths around the world come from environmental and occupational hazards, such as contaminated air, water, soil, and food. In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), exposures to indoor air pollution from cooking fires, outdoor pollution, radiation, contaminated water, and extreme weather events contribute to nearly a quarter of all deaths and illnesses. Despite the severity of these exposures, many low-resource countries lack the expertise to study the linkages between environmental and occupational risk factors and disease. U.S. researchers find it difficult to study these questions given that environmental and occupational exposures in the U.S. are generally not at high enough concentrations for sustained enough periods to allow for scientific study. To help fill this gap, Fogarty's Global Environmental and Occupational Health (GEOHealth) Hub Program was recently launched in partnership with the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) and the CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
GEOHealth will develop a network of collaborative research training hubs in LMICs that will, in close partnership with U.S. academic institutions, focus on collaborative research, data management, training, curriculum development and policy support regarding high-priority environmental and occupational health research in their regions. The hubs will build a critical mass of well-trained scientists in LMICs with support and recognition from national governments, and provide world-class platforms for collaborative population-based environmental health research of global relevance. In FY 2012 and FY 2013, FIC provided planning grants for 16 regional hubs, each managed by both a U.S. and a host country institution. In FY 2014, the most successful of these projects will be supported with comprehensive research and training awards, with each hub focusing on up to three critical environmental and occupational hazards. For example, a hub in Bangladesh will focus on water contamination, indoor air pollution caused by cooking and heating fuels, and urban smog, while a consortium in Ethiopia will target indoor and outdoor air quality, climate change and occupational health with an emphasis on agriculture. Using the core sciences of environmental monitoring, exposure science, epidemiology, genetics, biostatistics, information and communications technology, and data management, the GEOHealth hubs will become 21st century knowledge synthesis networks in the developing world.
Sustainable development of human resources for global health research
Breakthrough scientific advances in global health are built upon a foundation of well-trained researchers, over 5,000 to date, from both high-income countries and LMICs who collaborate to solve major global health problems. Investing in the best and brightest minds, and catalyzing research and training partnerships between talented U.S. and LMIC scientists continues to be a FIC high priority. Well-trained LMIC researchers bring an understanding of the unique biological, epidemiological, social, and cultural contexts of their communities, thereby contributing this knowledge to research on locally relevant challenges that often have broader, global implications. A further investment is in FIC's Global Health Research and Research Training eCapacity Initiative Program which will support innovative research education programs to teach researchers at LMIC institutions the knowledge and skills necessary to incorporate Information and Communication Technology (ICT) into global health research and research training.
The FY 2014 President's Budget estimate is $8.105 million, an increase of $1.663 million, or 25.8 percent above the FY 2012 Actual level. FIC's impact has historically been most significant in developing the pipeline of U.S. and foreign research talent. FIC intends to expand the number of overseas research experiences available for young U.S. scientists in order to encourage them to adopt careers in global health. FIC will also continue its research training partnerships between U.S. and foreign institutions and strive to enhance research opportunities for foreign scientists when they return home. In further support, FIC will fund eCapacity training, focusing on the capacity building activities at LMIC institutions.
Portrait of a Program: Fogarty Global Health Program for Fellows and Scholars
FY 2012 Level: $3.397 million
FY 2014 Level: $4.397 million
Change: +$1.000 million
Over the last decade, American university campuses have seen a soaring interest in global health among students and faculty from diverse fields. Since 2004, Fogarty has met this interest by providing individual support to more than 500 fellows (postdoctoral students and MDs) and scholars (current PhD and MD students) for hands-on, clinical research training experiences in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). To build on this success and continue fostering the next generation of global health scientists, Fogarty and 17 NIH Institutes and Centers partners are building a new network of 20 U.S. and international academic institutions arranged into five consortia that will provide early-career physicians, nurses, veterinarians, dentists and scientists with a significant mentored research experience in a developing country. Over the next five years, the Fogarty Global Heath Program for Fellows and Scholars will support more than 400 early-career health scientists with focused mentoring and nearly year-long global health clinical research experiences at approximately 80 established research sites in 27 LMICs. The program will enhance the career trajectory of participants, strengthen global health research programs at U.S. and foreign institutions, and bolster networking among fellows, scholars, and senior mentors.
Earlier versions of this program have seen great returns. Participants have published more than 750 articles in peer-reviewed journals, presented research findings at numerous scientific meetings, and used their research training to make practical improvements and advancements in treating disease. In South Africa, Dr. Kogieleum Naidoo attributes the Fogarty scholars program with teaching her the research skills, and providing the mentoring needed enabling her to contribute to significant scientific advances that improve outcomes for people co-infected with HIV and TB. Fogarty fellow Dr. Gerald Bloomfield used his expertise in cardiovascular research and training in Kenya and other countries when he identified an epidemic of diabetes, heart failure and high blood pressure; he put together an educational series of lectures for medical students, residents and technicians on the topics in collaboration with his mentors in Kenya and the U.S. Fellows and scholars will be engaged in research training related to a wide range of diseases and conditions, including HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, cancer cardiovascular disease, mental health, and diabetes.
International Collaborative Research
Fogarty-supported research collaborations between U.S. and LMIC scientists make U.S. academic institutions more globally competitive, extend their reach, and enable U.S. scientists to lead and participate in international research teams that address key global health priorities. For example, the burden of chronic, non-communicable diseases is climbing at a rapid rate in many LMICs due to dramatic gains in life expectancy, urbanization, and global economic development. This has led to a shared research agenda between high-income countries and LMICs, as well as opportunities to share knowledge and lessons learned. These partnerships also lead to more robust solutions to global health problems, as the respective strengths and expertise of local and U.S. scientists are brought to bear on complex challenges. Whether the focus is international collaborative research on tobacco control or the prediction and containment of emerging infectious diseases, discoveries and evidence generated by these projects have implications for U.S. populations.
The FY 2014 President's Budget estimate is $12.413 million, an increase of $0.403 million, or 3.4 percent above the FY 2012 Actual level. This area encourages implementation science to address the “know-do” gap, and would expand research training opportunities for U.S. and foreign scientists, foster a sustainable research environment in LMICs, and build strategic partnerships to further global health.
Portrait of a Program: International Cooperative Biodiversity Groups (ICBG)
FY 2012 Level: $2.500 million
FY 2014 Level: $3.200 million
Change: +$0.700 million
The International Cooperative Biodiversity Groups (ICBG) Program is a unique effort by five U.S. government agency partners - the NIH, the National Science Foundation, the United States Department of Agriculture, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the Department of Energy - to concretely link scientific discovery to better health, by supporting the translation of biomedical discoveries into new therapies and other products that support human well-being, such as new bio-fuels, crop protection agents, and drugs for animal health. The ICBG supports collaborative, multidisciplinary teams of U.S. and international scientists to conduct discovery research on the health applications of molecules from plants, animals, and microorganisms, while initiating partnerships with companies interested in developing these molecules for potential new drugs or diagnostics. The program also works to ensure that the socioeconomic benefits of discoveries reach the communities where discoveries are made, and that the biodiversity that makes continued scientific discovery possible is protected. The ICBG has supported discovery research for cancer, malaria, tuberculosis (TB), HIV/AIDS, and immune and central nervous system disorders, and has achieved numerous scientific breakthroughs, including three active patents in cancer and malaria, over 600 published scientific papers, and over 4,000 trained U.S. and international scientists.
In Fiji, an ICBG team led by ecologists studying the interaction of fish, algae, and coral observed that the algae were able to protect themselves from infectious agents, such as marine fungi. Using this knowledge, the ICBG team successfully tested the malaria parasite with extracts from these algae and discovered and patented a potential new anti-malarial agent. Given the recent rise of drug-resistant malaria, this could be a significant discovery in the fight against this wide-spread disease. In Fiji and other places, such as the Philippines and Panama, the ICBG teams are identifying different agents that can be used to develop new therapeutics from plants, animals, and microorganisms around the world, while working together with local governments and communities to protect natural bioresources for environmental and economic sustainability and future biodiscovery.
Research Management and Support (RMS)
FIC's RMS provides administrative, budgetary, logistical, and scientific support to review, award, and monitor research grants, training awards, and contracts. It encompasses strategic planning, coordination, and evaluation of the Center's programs; regulatory compliance; international coordination; international science policy; and liaisons with other Federal agencies, Congress, and the public. Specific functions include an in-house epidemiology section performing mathematical modeling of infectious diseases; international program officers developing partnerships between U.S. scientists and institutions and their counterparts abroad to advance scientific research and training; identification of collaborative opportunities with foreign science funding agencies; support for all NIH international travel by issuing and tracking official government passports and international visas; review and approval of Notice of Foreign Travel requests; and the creation and coordination of official travel cables to U.S. Embassies.
The FY 2014 President's Budget estimate is $14.945 million, an increase of $0.170 million, or 1.2 percent above the FY 2012 Actual level.